The study also builds on the authorâs previous fieldwork in Somalia in March 2015 and December 2017.5 To protect the safety of interlocutors and to encourage them to speak honestly and openly, all interviews during this and previous fieldwork trips are reported without the use of names. There was a significant number of arbitrary arrests of journalists and temporary closure of media outlets. continue to threaten several lives in Somalia today. As a result, it is imperative that CCCM partners are equipped with guidance in order to continue site-‐level activities supporting displaced with the ongoing COVID-‐ 19 pandemic. Inter-clan and intra-security force violence, often over control of land and revenge killings, led to civilian deaths, injuries, and displacement, as did sporadic military operations, including airstrikes, against Al-Shabab by Somali government forces, African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troops, and other foreign forces. November 2020. The Somaliland government severely restricted reporting and free expression on issues deemed controversial or overly critical of the authorities. Steps should be taken to hold accountable the most egregiously behaving militias. Foreign actors also instrumentalize Somaliaâs militias, undermining Somaliaâs sovereignty and entangling the country in geopolitical rivalries that could further destabilize the region. The cold war conflict between Qatar and Turkey, on the one hand, and Saudi Arabia and the Emirates, on the other, intersects with and exacerbates conflicts and tensions between Somaliaâs Government and the countryâs federal member states, themselves already at a level of tension and suspicion not seen in years. Somalia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world and as such presents unique challenges in terms of natural resource management. There are an estimated 2.6 million internally displaced people (IDPs), many living unassisted and vulnerable to abuse. According to multiple media reports, Aisha was raped, mutilated, and strangled to death. In response, clan elders and local communities have bolstered their own clan militias as protection â not only against al-Shabaab, but also against the SNA. Dozens were arbitrarily arrested, reportedly including children. The situation in Somalia is putting growing pressures on both the Somali Government and the international community to scale up the use of such militias. Al-Shabab conducted targeted and indiscriminate attacks against civilians and civilian infrastructure using improvised explosive devices (IEDs), suicide bombings, and shelling, as well as assassinations, particularly in Mogadishu and Lower Shabelle, which resulted in over 750 civilian deaths and injuries, according to the UN. Interview with the author, Mogadishu, January 2020. The UN explicitly linked the humanitarian situation to climate change, among other factors. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Somalia General Health Risks: Malaria Malaria is transmitted by the night-time - dusk to dawn - biting female Anopheles mosquito. This accounts for … In these ways, they exacerbate localconflicts, increase grievances and enable al- Shabaabâs political entrenchment in parts of the country. 4 in 100 Somali children die during the first month of life, 8 in 100 before their first birthday, and 1 in 8 before they turn five. Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia (S/2017/1109) Source. At the same time, militias may be the best hedge against even more direct intervention by outside actors. Appointment of electoral commissions, in charge of overseeing upcoming indirect elections, sparked major dispute; tensions rose with Kenya; and Al-Shabaab continued deadly attacks. If this issue is not acknowledged and dealt with sooner rather than later, the country could face an even direr situation than it currently is in. The epidemiology of COVID-19 and its interaction with other diseases in Somalia, and in Africa, is not yet known, but will be revealed in the coming weeks. Dozens of government and security officials as well as former electoral delegates and clan elders who had been involved in the 2016 electoral process, were assassinated; Al-Shabab claimed responsibility for some of the killings. In addition to reviewing the relevant existing literature, this study is principally based on fieldwork conducted in Mogadishu and Baidoa, Somalia, in January 2020. Many local communities deeply distrust and resent the SNA, which they perceive as more of a conglomeration of militias than as a competent State security service. The following introduction is an excerpt from the case study, "The problem with militias in Somalia: Almost everyone wants them despite their dangers," produced by Vanda Felbab-Brown for the United Nations University report, "Hybrid conflict, hybrid peace: How militias and paramilitary groups shape post-conflict transitions," of which Adam Day was the project lead. As such, their increasingly central role in the fight against al-Shabaab is a double-edged sword: short-term military gains must be balanced against the militiasâ longer-term, destabilizing impact. In January, when Somalia became a member of the UN Human Rights Council, the federal government expelled the UN head in Somalia, Nicholas Haysom, pointing to a letter in which he had raised human rights concerns around government actions in Baidoa. In 2018, the UN documented more cases of children recruited and used as soldiers in Somalia than in any other country in the world. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Ethiopia and Somalia have not faced an infestation on this scale for 25 years, while Kenya has not seen a locust threat this size for 70 years, the FAO said earlier this week. This study first provides an overview of the evolution and current state of the political, economic and battlefield power of al-Shabaab, alongside the capacities and deficiencies of both the various Somali national security services and the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). Somalia have high rates of stunting. For instance, the federal member states â which carefully guard their autonomy, despite the existence of a formally agreed Somali national security infrastructure framework â see the militias as a crucial security hedge against the power of Mogadishu, Somaliaâs capital. Cale Salih (Tokyo: United Nations University, 2018). The Centre provides training for young displaced Somali men and women in construction, engineering and plumbing. Somalia removes prime minister in no-confidence vote 170 of 178 MPs back motion against Hassan Ali Khaire for failing to move towards democratic elections Published: 25 Jul 2020 Somali powerbrokers, subfederal authorities, the national Government and external interveners have all turned to armed groups as a primary tool for prosecuting their interests. Aisha Ilyas Adan, 12, went missing on February 24, and her body was discovered the next day near her home in North Galkayo, Puntland. International donors supported the establishment of a new civilian court and prison complex in Mogadishu. This study analyses the pros and cons of relying on militias for security provision and counter-terrorism objectives in Somalia. He was accused of insulting public officials, disrupting government work, and spreading propaganda. Somalia is marauded with a number of domestic problems including poverty, lack of basic services, national debt, and security issues to name a few, however of all of these problems, the most pressing is the lack of access to clean water that the nation faces. According to the same assessment, almost 6.2million people across Somalia are projected to be in crisis and emergency (IPC Phases 3 and 4) acute food insecurity crisis – with IDPs accounting for over 70 per cent of the total. In late May, the police detained for three days Ali Adan Munim, reporter at the private Goobjoog media outlet, citing Facebook posts in which Ali criticized National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) treatment of detainees and had said he had obtained copies of national exams. It will seek to address the zonal, regional and Sixty-seven percent of this figure is due to indiscriminate and targeted attacks, the majority improvised explosive devices (IEDs) attacks, by the Islamist armed group Al-Shabab. As a United Nations official in Mogadishu put it, âWe have tried to get to reduced killing in Somalia without ever resolving Somaliaâs conflicts.â3 And in the words of an international military advisor in Baidoa: âFighting a war through proxies is fraught with proxy problems downstream.â4 There is growing evidence that embracing militias rewards entrepreneurs of violence, reinforces impunity, and perpetuates violence. Somalis fleeing from drought in the Lower and Middle Shabelle regions of the country carry their belongings as they reach a makeshift camp for displaced persons in the Daynile neighborhood on the outskirts of the capital Mogadishu on May 18, 2019. Critically, the Somali Government, the federal member states and the international community should refocus efforts on reducing local conflicts, as part of the broader strategy to combat al-Shabaab and build stronger relations between State and society. 35.26 (2020) Energy Imports Net ... Find relevant data on energy production, total primary energy supply, electricity consumption and CO2 emissions for Somalia on IndexMundi Homepage. To understand how these militias form and operate, the study provides a detailed portrait of several prototypical militiagroups â namely, Macawiisleey, Ahlu Sunna Wal Jamaâa, the South-West Special Police, Mukhtar Robowâs militias, Ahmed Madobeâs militias (theÂ Jubbaland State Forces), the PMPF and the PSF. The third section of the study describes the lack of a consistent policy towards militia groups in Somalia and the increasing tendency of various international actors to embrace and bolster militias. Human Rights Watch defends the rights of people in 90 countries worldwide, spotlighting abuses and bringing perpetrators to justice, Human Rights Watch is a 501(C)(3) nonprofit registered in the US under EIN: 13-2875808, Displacement and Access to Humanitarian Assistance, Two Years After #MeToo Erupts, A New Treaty Anchors Workplace Shifts, Holding Companies to Account: Momentum Builds for Corporate Human Rights Duties, As Killer Robots Loom, Demands Grow to Keep Humans in Control of Use of Force, Shutting Down the Internet to Shut Up Critics, With Millions Out of School, the Countdown Begins to Get All Children into Quality, Accessible Education, Going to the Bank for Food, Not Money: The Growing Reality of Hunger in “Rich” Countries, African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) troops, first independent National Human Rights Commission, Military courts continue to try defendants in a broad range of cases, killings, maiming, and the recruitment and use of child soldiers, at particular risk of sexual and gender-based violence, police detained for three days Ali Adan Munim, many of them children and internally displaced. According to media reports and the UN, between December 31, 2018, and early November, 2019, the government had carried out at least 16 executions, all for alleged terrorism-related offenses. United Nations officials and international diplomats, interviews with the author, Mogadishu, January 2020. After the Somali government expelled special representative of the secretary-general Haysom, the UN suspended its monthly reporting on human rights issues. Integrating militias into formal security forces; Putting them on payroll and providing them with non-lethal assistance without integrating them into formal forces; Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR); Addressing local conflicts as an indirect approach to eliminating the impetus for militias. In December 2018, during the run-up to regional presidential elections in Baidoa, Ethiopian forces arrested Mukhtar Robow, a former Al-Shabab leader who ran for the regional presidency, sparking protests. In September and October, authorities in Puntland repeatedly harassed journalists at Daljir Radio after the station reported on alleged arbitrary arrests and mistreatment of detainees, including the alleged death in custody of one detainee as a result of mistreatment, by Puntland security forces. Even countries such as the United Kingdom and Germany (which have been at the forefront of multilateral efforts in Somalia) are increasingly motivated to support at least one set of militia groups â the State-supported paramilitary darwish (also known as âspecial police forcesâ) â through financial and possibly other non- lethal support.2 These countriesâ rationale is that, although reliance on militia groups for counter-terrorism and security is problematic, it is equally unsustainable and problematic to rely on the small and incompetent SNA and the national Somali Police Force (SPF). Three men were sentenced to death under Puntland’s 2016 Sexual Offences Act, which includes death penalty sentences for “aggravated” cases of rape. Although Somalia has a low HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate of 0.7%, about 34,000 people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009 with about 1600 deaths recorded within the same year. Al-Shabaab remains one of Somaliaâs most powerful political and military actors. UN SC; Published 30 Aug 2018. In April, AFRICOM acknowledged two civilian casualties in an April 2018 strike, citing internal reporting errors. The study then assesses the effectiveness and shortcomings of existing responses to militias in Somalia, providing recommendations to national actors, policymakers and practitioners. The second part of the study analyses the structural and political drivers of militia formation and persistence in Somalia. For the Government, federal member states and international actors, militias are a favored tool against al-Shabaab, but their utility extends far beyond that fight. The ban on Foore was lifted in August. These dynamics take place in a fraught political context: tensions have risen between the Government and the federal member states, and there is broader geopolitical and regional competition for influence in Somalia. It declared that 2.1 million Somalis face acute food insecurity, as of late September, many of them children and internally displaced. Al-Shabab executed after unfair trials individuals it accused of working or spying for the government and foreign forces, with media reporting an uptick in executions mid-year; and extorted “taxes” through threats. Despite USD $1 billion of international financial assistance and international training since 2012, the Somali National Army (SNA) continues to lack the gamut of fighting capacities, relying instead on international forces to wrest territory from al- Shabaab, or even to keep the group from openly retaking other large territories, including majorcities. Existing efforts to strengthen the SNA and other official forces are not producing adequate numbers of sufficiently competent Somali national soldiers. These individuals faced serious abuses, including sexual violence, forced evictions, and limited access to basic needs such as food and water. He was acquitted and released on February 25. International support and attention focused on building Somalia’s security sector, improving relations between federal and state authorities, and regional electoral processes. Militia groups have historically been a defining feature of Somaliaâs conflict landscape, especially since the ongoing civil war began three decades ago. This portion of the study explains the international communityâs dilemmas in deciding how to deal with these newly strengthened forces. Politics | December 11th 2020 Covid-19 exacerbates risk of civil unrest in Africa in 2021 The adverse effects of Covid-19 will linger in 2021, and another wave of civil unrest could regain momentum. Al-Shabab continues to prohibit many nongovernmental organizations and all UN agencies from working in areas under its control, blockading some government-controlled towns. The competition between UAE and Qatar over political and economic dominance in Somalia continued to exacerbate intra-Somalia tensions, both between Mogadishu and federal states, and with Somaliland. On February 10, the regional court in Hargeisa suspended the Foore newspaper for one year and fined the editor, Abdirashid Abdiwahab Ibrahim, 3 million Somaliland shillings (US$300). Somalia is not graded in the 2020 Index because of the continuing unavailability of relevant comparable statistics on all facets of the economy. To sav… Ilhan Omar says Trump doing 'what Somali dictators used to do’ ... Somalia embroiled in diplomatic row after expelling UN envoy. Somalia. CCCM partners in Somalia play a critical role in administering site‐level coordination which feeds up to the national level. Hybrid conflict, hybrid peace: How militias and paramilitary groups shape post-conflict transitions, Center for Security, Strategy, and Technology, Russia, China, and the risks of war: My conversation with General Mark Milley, Facing elections and a potential US troop withdrawal, risks to Somalia’s security abound, Nuclear Weapons and American Grand Strategy, Evolving Human Security Challenges in the Atlantic Space, https://i.unu.edu/media/cpr.unu.edu/ attachment/3129/4-LoP-Somalia-final.pdf, 2020 appears to be a good year for counterterrorism, Reflections on the Christchurch commission report. Deeply entrenched in the political economy of Somalia, militias have strong tendencies to appropriate political authority, strengthen authoritarian forms of rule, monopolize local economies and engage in other mafia-like economic and political activities. The decision to double down on pro-Government militias to address the threats posed by al- Shabaab thus risks producing new drivers of conflict while perpetuating deeply rooted intercommunal tensions. The UN and Norwegian Refugee Council also reported that over 300,000 people had been newly displaced as of September. It details the evolution, effectiveness and effects on stabilization efforts of several militia groups â Macawiisleey, Ahlu SunnaWal Jamaâa, South-West Special Police, Mukhtar Robowâs militias, Ahmed Madobeâs militias (the Jubbaland State Forces), the Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) and the Puntland Security Force (PSF). The newspaper was accused of spreading misinformation after it reported on the building of a new presidential palace in Hargeisa. Somali government forces responded to a handful of largely peaceful demonstrations with lethal force. Following the December 2018 police violence in Baidoa, key international partners—the European Union, the United Kingdom and Germany—temporarily suspended support to police in the South West State. Nonetheless, rolling back militias in Somalia does not seem feasible at this time, given al- Shabaabâs new momentum and the lack of progress in building up the Stateâs capacities. 19 May 2020: From January to June 2017 - 28,757 Somali refugees from Kenya were voluntarily repatriated to Somalia by UNHCR as part of its programme and benefited from an enhanced return package. Embracing militias carries many risks: As this study details, the loyalties of militia groups are fluid, as they are susceptible to recruitment by their enemies and may prioritize their own interests â or those of an external patron â over those of the State. Ongoing armed conflict, insecurity, lack of state protection, and recurring humanitarian crises exposed Somali civilians to serious abuse. Find relevant information for Somalia on energy access ... Key Problems of the Energy Sector . The recommendations focus on the following areas: In addition to reviewing the relevant existing literature, this study is principally based on fieldwork conducted in Mogadishu and Baidoa, Somalia, in January 2020. The federal government, regional authorities, notably in Puntland and Jubaland, and Al-Shabab continued to intimidate, harass and attack journalists. 2018-2020 1. Two journalists, Mohamed Sahal Omar and Somali-Canadian Hodan Nalayeh, were killed in a July 12 Al-Shabab attack on a hotel in the southern port city of Kismayo. A poorly concluded defeat of al-Shabaab could actually plunge the country back into open fighting as the remaining militias compete for power. But eight years later, many of these efforts have not yet delivered results. Introduction The UNICEF Somalia Health Programme will focus on foundational programming (health system strengthening) given the fragile context, pre-famine, drought and pockets of continuing insecurity caused by the Al Shabaab group. They compete with each other and, at times, with the federal Government. Outlook for 2020: In late 2020 or early 2021, Somalia hopes to hold its first direct parliamentary and presidential elections since 1969, suggesting the political situation is stabilizing somewhat. On January 12, poet Abdirahman Ibrahim Adan (known as "Abdirahman Abees") was arbitrarily arrested and charged with “insulting the police” after he highlighted various due process abuses in Somaliland. The government has yet to endorse the list of nominees for the country’s first independent National Human Rights Commission. It reviews current and potential policies for reducing the scale and negative effects of the militias, identifying the feasibility and likely effectiveness of each. Somali federal and regional authorities unlawfully detained children simply for alleged ties to Al-Shabab and at times prosecuted in military courts, children for terrorism-related offenses. During that fieldwork, the author conducted 51 interviews with current and former officials of the Somali Government and the federal member states, current and former officers of Somaliaâs national security forces, Somali politicians, business leaders, representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), Somali clan elders, United Nations officials, international advisors to the Somali Government and international diplomats. Malaria - Overview How to Protect Yourself Against Malaria World Malaria Risk Chart. While Somali authorities seldom investigate cases of killings or attacks on journalists, a Somali media organization reported that the military court in Mogadishu in absentia sentenced to five years a police officer for the July 2018 killing of cameraman Abdirizak Kasim Iman. The government also arbitrarily arrested perceived government critics. Communities create or join such groups as a primary response to conditions of insecurity, vulnerability and contestation. The assessed policies include: The final section of the study, on recommendations, builds on the analysis of current responses and offers concrete steps that would enable the Somali Government and international partners to limit the risks posed by militias while also benefiting from their unique capacities. Unfortunately, many children in Somalia are still deprived of this. The states can use the militias as a bargaining tool in their negotiations with Mogadishu over power distribution. World. December 7, 2020 • Press Release US must not abandon civilian victims of its air strikes in Somalia after troop withdrawal. Since 2012, after helping to dramatically weaken a brutal, dangerous al-Shabaab regime that controlled much of the country, the international community has assisted in building State institutions in Somalia, which had been overwhelmingly destroyed in two and half decades of civil war. This material has been funded by UK aid from the UK government; however the views expressed do not necessarily reflect the UK governmentâs official policies. It also describes the pro-militia arguments made by Somali politicians, government officials, clan elders and international actors. The Somali penal code, currently being revised, classifies sexual violence as an “offence against modesty and sexual honor” rather than as a violation of bodily integrity; it also punishes same-sex intercourse. Relations between the federal government and the federal member states deteriorated, diverting attention from needed reforms and on occasion resulting in abuses. 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